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Society: Ch.12 Economics and Politics

True or False:
The *economy* organizes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
*True*:
The economy organizes the *production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services*.

True or False:
Compared to *agricultural work*, industrial jobs involve less *specialization*.
*False*:
Compared to agricultural work, *industrial jobs* involve *more specialization*.

True or False:
The *invention of the corporation* is generally taken as the point at which a postindustrial society emerged.
*False*:
The invention of the corporation is *not* generally taken as the point at which a postindustrial society emerged.

True or False:
The *Information Revolution* requires workers to gain literacy skills instead of the mechanical skills that were important during the Industrial Revolution.
*True*:
The Information Revolution requires workers to gain *literacy skills* instead of the mechanical skills that were important during the Industrial Revolution.

True or False:
The concepts “*primary sector*,” “*secondary sector*,” and “*tertiary sector*” refer to how productive a sector is in terms of economic value.
*False*:
The concepts “primary sector,” “secondary sector,” and “tertiary sector” refer to the *different parts of the economy*.

True or False:
The *global economy* pays little regard to national borders.
*True*:
The global economy pays *little* regard to *national borders*.

True or False:
Taken together, *local, state, and federal governments* are the U.S.’s largest single employer.
*True*:
Taken together, local, state, and federal governments are the U.S.’s *largest single employer*.

True or False:
The concept *”state capitalism”* refers all productive enterprises in a country being owned by the government.
*False*:
The concept “state capitalism” refers all productive companies being *privately owned* but *cooperate closely with the government*.

True or False:
*Socialist economies* create greater economic equality than capitalist economies, but with a lower overall living standard.
*True*:
Socialist economies create *greater economic equality* than capitalist economies, but with a *lower overall living standard*.

True or False:
*Denmark* is an example of a European nation with a system of welfare capitalism in which high taxes pay for extensive government-provided benefits.
*True*:
*Denmark* is an example of a European nation with a system of *welfare capitalism* in which *high taxes* pay for extensive government-provided benefits.

True or False:
In the United States, *union membership* is higher today than ever before.
*False*:
Union membership peaked around 1970 at almost 25 million. Since then, membership has declined.

True or False:
The concept “*paraprofessional*” refers to work that requires skills, but typically lacks a broad theoretical knowledge of a field.
*True*:
The concept “paraprofessional” refers to work that *requires skills*, but typically *lacks a broad theoretical knowledge of a field*.

True or False:
The *self-employed* are more likely to have blue-collar jobs than white-collar jobs.
*True*:
The *self-employed* are more likely to have *blue-collar* jobs than white-collar jobs.

True or False:
A *recent trend in the United States* is a steady rise in the *share of small businesses* owned by women.
*True*:
A recent trend in the United States is a *steady rise* in the share of small businesses owned by *women*.

True or False:
In recent years, the lowest *unemployment rates in the United States* have been among teenagers.
*False*:
In recent years, the *highest* unemployment rates in the United States have been among *teenagers*.

True or False:
The *U.S. workforce* is becoming more “white,” even *as immigration rates rise*.
*False*:
The U.S. workforce is becoming *less* “white,” even as immigration rates rise.

True or False:
One effect of *computer technology* is giving workers greater power over their employers.
*False*:
One effect of computer technology is giving workers *less* power over their employers.

True or False:
*Conglomerates* are giant corporations composed of many smaller corporations.
*True*:
Conglomerates are *giant corporations* composed of *many smaller corporations*.

True or False:
*Oligopoly* refers to any company that operates in more than one country.
*False*:
Oligopoly refers to the domination of a market by *a few producers*.

True or False:
*Monopoly* refers to a corporation that operates within a single sector of the economy.
*False*:
Monopoly refers to the domination of a market by *a single producer*.

True or False:
*Large corporations* dominate many markets in the global economy.
*True*:
Large corporations dominate *many markets in the global economy*.

True or False:
The concept of “*government*” refers to the formal organization that directs the political life of a society.
*True*:
The concept of “government” refers to the formal organization that *directs the political life of a society*.

True or False:
According to *Max Weber*, *authority* is just another word for power.
*False*:
According to Max Weber, authority is *not* just another word for power.

True or False:
*Authority* refers to power that people perceive as coercive.
*False*:
Authority refers to power that people perceive as *legitimate*.

True or False:
*Charismatic authority* is based on extraordinary personal abilities.
*True*:
Charismatic authority is based on *extraordinary personal abilities*.

True or False:
*Rational-legal authority* is also called “bureaucratic authority” because it is legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations.
*True*:
Rational-legal authority is also called *”bureaucratic authority”* because it is *legitimized by legally enacted rules and regulations*.

True or False:
*Weber’s idea of the routinization of charisma* is the claim that charisma does not exist in the modern world.
*False*:
Weber’s idea of the routinization of charisma is the claim that *charisma exists when charismatic authority is transformed* into some combination of *traditional and bureaucratic authority*.

True or False:
*Democracy* and *rational-legal authority* are linked, just as monarchy and traditional authority are linked.
*True*:
Democracy and rational-legal authority are linked, just as *monarchy* and *traditional authority* are linked.

True or False:
*Authoritarian governments* give people little voice in politics.
*True*:
Authoritarian governments give people *little* voice in politics.

True or False:
In a *totalitarian political system*, one political organization claims total control of society.
*True*:
In a totalitarian political system, *one political organization* claims *total control* of society.

True or False:
Just as *the economy is becoming more and more global*, so is the world developing a single global political system.
*False*:
Although the economy is becoming more and more global, the world remains *divided into nation-states*. However, *politics has become a global process*.

True or False:
*Special interest groups* represent liberal interests, while *political action committees* represent conservative interests.
*False*:
Both *special interest groups and political action committees* represent both *liberal and conservative interests*.

True or False:
The *pluralist model* states that *the United States* is far less democratic than most people would like to think.
*False*:
The pluralist model states that the United States is far *more democratic* than most people would like to think, because *power is spread widely enough so that all groups have some voice*.

True or False:
The sociologist closely associated with *the power-elite model* is C. Wright Mills.
*True*:
The sociologist closely associated with the power-elite model is *C. Wright Mills*.

True or False:
*Extensive civil liberties* make democratic societies more vulnerable to terrorism.
*True*:
Extensive civil liberties make democratic societies *more vulnerable to terrorism*.

True or False:
The concept “*military-industrial complex*” refers to the close association among the federal government, the military, and defense industries.
*True*:
The concept “military-industrial complex” refers to the *close association* among *the federal government, the military, and defense industries*.

What is *true* about the *economy* as a *social institution*?
As a *social institution*, the economy….
– produces and distributes goods and services;
– guides the consumption of goods and services; and
– operates in a relatively predictable manner.

What are the *three technological revolutions* that transformed all of social life?
The three technological revolutions are:
– the *Agricultural* Revolution;
– the *Industrial* Revolution; and
– the *Information* Revolution.

The economy first became a distinct social institution during *which historical stage of technological development*?
The economy first became a distinct social institution during the stage of *agrarian* societies.

What was the *Industrial Revolution* based on?
The Industrial Revolution was based on *new sources of energy*.

Which *new source of energy* launched the Industrial Revolution?
The *steam engine* launched the Industrial Revolution.

What is the *postindustrial economy* defined by?
The postindustrial economy is defined by *service work* and *computer technology*.

Which concept refers to an economy based on *computer technology*?
*Postindustrial economy* refers to an economy based on computer technology.

Which statement about the *Information Revolution* is *not* correct?
It is *not* correct that there was a shift from *farming* to *turning raw materials into finished products* during the Information Revolution.

Which statements about the *Information Revolution* are *correct*?
During the Information Revolution, it is correct that there were shifts….
– from from making tangible products to generating ideas;
– from mechanical skills to literacy skills; and
– from working in factories to working almost anywhere.

Looking at economies around the world, where is the *primary sector* is the *largest*?
Looking at economies around the world, the primary sector is the largest in *low-income* nations.

What growth does the *expansion of office work* mark?
The expansion of office work marks the growth of the economy’s *tertiary sector*.

In the *United States*, about *what percentage of the labor force* performs *tertiary* sector work?
In the United States, about *80 percent* of the labor force performs tertiary sector work.

What does *globalization of the economy* mean?
*Globalization of the economy* means that….
– world regions specialize in one sector of economic activity;
– more and more products pass through several nations; and
– a small number of businesses represent a huge share of global economic output.

What is *true* about *capitalism* as an economic system?
*Capitalism* is an economic system in which there is *private ownership of property*.

In a *capitalist* economic system, what does “*justice*” amount to?
In a *capitalist* economic system, justice amounts to *freedom of the marketplace* allowing people to *follow their self-interest*.

Who was the social thinker whose ideas supported *the operation of a free-market economy* most?
The social thinker whose ideas supported *the operation of a free-market economy* most was *Adam Smith*.

Why is the United States a mostly capitalist nation?
The United States is a mostly capitalist nation because *the vast majority of productive businesses are privately owned*.

What is *true* about *socialism* as an economic system?
*Socialism* is an economic system in which there is *collective control of production*.

What does *not* describe the operation of a *socialist economy*?
A *laissez-faire economy* does *not* describe the operation of a socialist economy.

What describes the operation of a *socialist economy*?
The operation of a *socialist economy* is described by….
– collective orientation;
– government control of production; and
– command economy.

Which concept refers to a *political and economic system* that combines *a mostly market-based economy* with *extensive social welfare programs*.
*Welfare capitalism* refers to a political and economic system that combines *a mostly market-based economy* with *extensive social welfare programs*.

What is an example of *a European country* with *a mostly private economy* and *extensive social welfare programs*.
An example of a European country with a mostly private economy and extensive social welfare programs is *Sweden*.

What does the concept *”state capitalism”* refer to?
The concept *”state capitalism”* refers to a system in which *privately owned companies cooperate closely with the government*.

Contrasted to *socialist* economic systems, what is typically true about *capitalist economic systems*?
Contrasted to socialist economic systems, *capitalist economic systems* are typically *more productive*.

Concerning the issue of *personal freedom*, what do *capitalist* systems emphasize? And what do *socialist* systems emphasize?
Concerning the issue of personal freedom, capitalist systems emphasize people’s *freedom to pursue their self-interest*, while socialist systems emphasize people’s *freedom from basic want*.

In the *United States* about *what share of the population aged sixteen and older* is in the paid labor force?
In the United States, about *59 percent* of the population aged sixteen and older is *in the paid labor force*.

By *1950*, most of the people in the *U.S. labor force* had which *type of job*?
By *1950*, most of the people in the U.S. labor force had *white-collar* jobs.

What is *true* about *union membership* in recent decades?
In recent decades, union membership has *declined in the United States and other high-income nations*.

Which description does *not* apply to a *profession*?
The description of *working for a large, well-established company* does *not* apply to a profession.

Which descriptions apply to a *profession*?
A *profession* is described by….
– having theoretical knowledge of a field;
– having authority over clients; and
– professing a community, rather than an individual.

Which category of *the U.S. population* is showing the *greatest labor-force increase* in terms of *percentage*?
*Hispanic women* are showing the *greatest labor-force increase* in terms of *percentage*.

*Computers* are having which *effect on the workplace*?
Computers are….
– deskilling labor;
– limiting workplace interaction; and
– enhancing employers’ control of workers.

What is a *conglomerate*?
A conglomerate is *a giant corporation* composed of *many smaller corporations*.

What does the concept *”oligopoly”* refer to?
The concept “oligopoly” refers to *domination of a market by a few producers*.

What do *modernization* theorists see *large corporations* as?
Modernization theorists see large corporations as *unleashing the productive power of capitalism* to *speed development in poor nations*.

What do *dependency* theorists see *large corporations* as?
Dependency theorists see large corporations as *intensifying global inequality*.

*Politics* is a social institution that is defined in terms of what?
*Politics* is a social institution that is defined in terms of a society’s *distribution of power, goals, and decision making*.

What did *Max Weber* define *power* as?
Max Weber defined power as the *ability to achieve desired ends*, despite *resistance*.

Which concept refers to the formal organization that *directs the political life of a society*?
*Government* refers to the formal organization that directs the political life of a society.

*Preindustrial societies* are characterized by having what?
*Preindustrial societies* are characterized by having mostly *traditional* authority.

*Industrialization* decreases the importance of which *type of authority*?
Industrialization *decreases* the importance of *traditional* authority.

As *Max Weber* saw it, what is the essential difference between *power* and *authority*?
As *Max Weber* saw it, the essential difference between power and authority is that *people perceive authority as legitimate, rather than coercive*.

What do *people who attract followers*, including Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, *display*?
*People who attract followers*, including Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, display *charismatic* authority.

*Max Weber* said that with *charismatic* authority, *a crisis results with what*?
*Max Weber* said that with *charismatic* authority, a *crisis* results with the *death of the leader*.

Which concept refers to a political system in which *a single family rules from generation to generation*?
*Monarchy* refers to a political system in which *a single family rules from generation to generation*.

Which concept refers to a political system in which *power resides in the hands of the people as a whole*?
*Democracy* refers to a political system in which *power resides in the hands of the people as a whole*.

Which nations in the world today *claim to be democratic*?
*Most high-income nations* in the world today claim to be *democratic*.

For which *reasons* might you argue that *the United States is not truly democratic*?
You might argue that *the United States is not truly democratic* because….
– there is a lot of economic inequality;
– millions of bureaucratic officials are not elected; and
– rich people have much more influence on our way of life than poor people.

What does the concept *”authoritarian”* refer to?
The concept *”authoritarian”* refers to a political system that *denies most people participation in government*.

Which *nation* comes *closest* to having a political system that is “*totalitarian*”?
*North Korea* comes closest to having a political system that is “*totalitarian*”.

What statement correctly describes *how the U.S. population falls on the political spectrum*?
The statement that about 40 percent of people are *moderates who fall near the political center* describes how the U.S. population falls on the political spectrum.

What would be described as *an economic issue*?
*Poverty* would be described as an economic issue.

In general, how do *high-income* people tend to be on *social* issues? And how do they tend to be on *economic* issues?
In general, *high-income* people tend to be *liberal* on social issues and tend to be *conservative* on economic issues.

What is the *National Rifle Association* an example of?
The National Rifle Association is an example of a *special-interest group*.

In the *2008 presidential election*, about *what percentage* of registered voters actually *went to the polls*?
In the *2008 presidential election*, about *63 percent* of registered voters actually *went to the polls*.

Which category of the U.S. population is *least* likely to *vote in national elections*?
*Hispanic people* are *least* likely to vote in national elections.

What does a *pluralist* approach to the *U.S. political system* suggest?
A *pluralist approach* to the U.S. political system suggests that *power is widely dispersed throughout society*.

Which are factors *encouraging political revolution*?
Factors *encouraging political revolution* include….
– rising expectation of a better life;
– unresponsive government; and
– radical leadership by intellectuals.

What does *terrorism* refer to?
*Terrorism* refers to *the use or threat of *violence as a political strategy* by an individual or group.

Which concept refers to *the use of violence by governments*, often *against their own people*?
*State terrorism* refers to the use of violence by governments, often against their own people.

Which statement about *terrorism* is *true*?
It is *true* that….
– whether someone is a “terrorist” or a “freedom fighter” is often a matter of definition;
– democratic societies are especially vulnerable to terrorism; and
– identifying and effectively targeting terrorists is usually difficult.

With respect to *war*, what does the text explain?
With respect to *war*, the text explains that there is *nothing in our human biology* that *makes it natural to go to war*.

A sociological profile of *men and women in the U.S. armed forces today* reveals a large share of *what kind of people*?
A sociological profile of *men and women in the U.S. armed forces today* reveals a large share of young people who….
– are of working-class background;
– are looking to the military for a job; and
– join the military to earn money for college or just to get out of a small home town.

Why has *terrorism* been called a *new kind of warfare*?
*Terrorism* has been called a new kind of warfare because it *lacks clearly stated objectives* and *is not about controlling territory*.

About *how much money* does the world as a whole spend annually for *military purposes*?
The world as a whole spends about *$1.6 trillion* annually for *military purposes*.

What does the *military-industrial complex* refer to?
The military-industrial complex refers to *the close link between the government, defense industries, and the military*.

For almost fifty years, what strategy has *kept the peace* between the *world’s nuclear superpowers*?
For almost fifty years, *deterrence* has kept the peace between the world’s nuclear superpowers.

In *2011*, a wave of popular uprisings seeking *more democratic government* swept across which *region of the world*?
In *2011*, a wave of popular uprisings seeking *more democratic government* swept across *the Middle East*.

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